Track 9: Community Engagement
The Polyvocality of Resilience: Discovering a Research Agenda through Interdisciplinary Investigation & Community Engagement
Robert Soden, Leysia Palen, Claire Chase, Derya Deniz, Erin Arneson, Leah Sprain, Bruce Evan Goldstein, Abbie Liel, Amy Javernick-Will, Shideh Dashti
This paper presents findings from an interdisciplinary research effort studying community resilience in Boulder, Colorado. Boulder is a progressive region with a history of environmental leadership. The area is currently in the process of recovering from major flooding and has launched several new initiatives related to building long-term resilience to natural disasters and other stressors. In our research, we consider the stakeholders involved in building local resilience as well as the different and often contradictory framings of the concept. This study takes a phenomenological and inductive approach to understanding resilience. In contrast to more reductionist frameworks that are frequently offered, we argue that this allows for greater understanding of the polyvocal and emergent qualities of resilience.
Participatory Mapping for Disaster Preparedness: The Development & Standardization of Animal Evacuation Maps
Joanne I. White, Leysia Palen
People who own animals are faced with complex decision making in evacuations. In the US, the Emergency Operations Center is often inundated with calls from animal owners who are aware they are under pre- or mandatory evacuation, but are unsure of what to do about evacuating their animals. Often animal evacuation is a highly improvised activity for owners and responders, though there is a now a general push toward streamlining procedures because of the high impact the matter of animals has on society’s welfare during times of emergency. This paper reports on the use of participatory design methods in a mapping project to support the range of people involved in animal evacuation during mass displacement events. The work provides insight into both procedures and standards for creating evacuation maps that communicate clearly with the public and across the range of emergency responders.
Nick LaLone, Andrea H. Tapia, Nathan A. Case, Elizabeth MacDonald, Michelle Hall, Matt Heavner
In this paper we present Aurorasaurus: a website, a mobile application, and a citizen science initiative that allows a community of users to report and verify sightings of the Aurora Borealis. Through ad-hoc data indirectly offered through social media, a community of citizen scientists verify sightings of the Aurora Borealis. These verified data are tested against currently existing aurora-forecasting models. The insights these data provide are transformed into map and text-based forms. In addition, notifications are sent to interested participants in a timely manner. This is a design test-bed for an early warning system (EWS) that is capable of detecting and communicating the earliest signs of disaster to community members in near real time. Most importantly, this system incorporates community participation in improving the quality of data mined from Twitter and direct community contributions.
Bonny Roos, Kim van Buul-Besseling, Jan-Willem Streefkerk, Martijn Neef
In this paper, we present a model that identifies seven success factors for the development of crowdsourcing platforms for disaster recovery. This model integrates two existing theories. The first theory focuses on success factors of crowdsourcing initiatives in general. The second theory states how disaster relief operations can improve when they take the psychological components of resilience into account. By merging the core principles of these two theories and adding additional knowledge gained from literature study, we constructed an integrated success factor model for use in the development of crowdsourcing applications for disaster recovery. An initial validation of the success factor model was conducted within a case study on a crowdsourcing platform for disaster recovery which is currently being developed. Conclusions are drawn with regards to the applicability of the model to guide development of crowdsourcing platforms for disaster recovery.
Policy and Technology Readiness: Engaging the User and Developer Community to Develop a Research Roadmap
Jarrod R. Olson, Jonathan L. Barr, Russ Burtner, Curtis L. West, Joseph Kielman
A key challenge for research roadmapping in the crisis response and management domain is articulation of a shared vision that describes what the future can and should include. Visioning allows for far-reaching stakeholder engagement that can properly align research with stakeholders' needs. Engagement includes feedback from researchers, policy makers, general public, and end-users on technical and non-technical factors. This work articulates a process and framework for the construction and maintenance of a stakeholder-centric research vision and roadmap in the emergency management domain. This novel roadmapping process integrates three pieces: analysis of the research and technology landscape, visioning, and stakeholder engagement. Our structured engagement process elicits research foci for the roadmap based on relevance to stakeholder mission, identifies collaborators, and builds consensus around the roadmap priorities. We find that the vision process and vision storyboard helps SMEs conceptualize and discuss a technology's strengths, weaknesses, and alignment with needs.
Suvodeep Mazumdar, Stuart N. Wrigley, Neil Ireson, Fabio Ciravegna
For some emergency situations an effective response can be reliant on sensor data (e.g. river level, traffic flow, weather conditions) to provide situation awareness, in order to help authorities make informed decisions. Gathering data in a traditional approach, i.e. using precise physical sensors, is a highly expensive task, involving procurement, installation and maintenance of a number of sensors. As a result, the coverage of sensors is limited and only the regions deemed most important by authorities are monitored. However, regions currently not being monitored can have an urgent need to be sensed depending on emergencies or situations. We present a high-level overview of the Locaware system, which employs a flexible geofencing approach to enable crowdsourcing by requesting citizens and volunteers to help authorities formulate a greater situation awareness of a region under consideration. While the Locaware system is motivated for water monitoring, our approach can be applied in other contexts.
In 2014, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) carried out a comprehensive crisis communication multi-sector exercise. To evaluate communication in exercises there is a need for involving the public as they are the primary target group in most crises. Systematically involving the public in evaluation of exercises has only been done a few times in Sweden and there are no known international attempts. We therefore developed a method where a representative sample of 2 000 persons was drawn from the Swedish population register and invited to assess communication during the exercise. The so-called “Public Network” finally consisted of 99 people who contributed extensively with 395 assessment questionnaires. This paper describes the method, the results and experiences. We encourage other organizations to involve the public in exercises for evaluation purposes. The results show that there is a willingness among the public to contribute to the development of crisis preparedness.
Daniel Auferbauer, Roman Ganhör, Hilda Tellioğlu
Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT) offer new possibilities when dealing with crisis situations. In this paper we present the design for a crowd tasking tool (CTT) that is currently under development. We describe how the tool can assist disaster relief coordinators during a crisis by selectively distributing tasks to a crowd of volunteers. We also compare the CTT with an already existing ICT based solution for supporting volunteerism during crisis. The differences between these two tools are addressed and the implications for volunteerism are discussed. The paper concludes with an outlook on future work emphasizing a form of volunteer involvement that offers potential for gathering information that is more relevant and easier to digest for decision-making than information provided solely by self-organised volunteers through social media.
Public Library Partnerships with Local Agencies to Meet Community Disaster Preparedness and Response Needs
This paper reports on the initial findings of the first phase of a study funded by San Jose State University, USA to provideinsightregardinghowpubliclibrariescanbe moreinvolvedincommunity-wide disasterplanning,strengtheningtheirroleascoremembersof theircommunities'disasterpreparedness and responseinfrastructure. The first phase of the study involves a nationwide survey of public library directors and library staff who are involved in coordinating disaster planning for their institutions. A survey was carried out during December 2014 and January 2015 to explorewhatpubliclibrariescanbringtocommunity-wideplanningefforts and thetypesofpartnershipsthatarepossible. The findingswillprovidelibraryleaderswithvaluableinsighton how to proactivelyengageindialogueandplanningwiththeirlocalemergencymanagement community. The second phase emerging from the research will involve follow-up in-depth explorations of the exemplary disaster planning models.
Christine (Tine) Adler, Werner Sauter, Jona Meyer, Maria Hagl, Margit Raich
Based on interviews with European crisis managers and other stakeholders, we identified specific learning requirements regarding psycho-social support in disaster management. This paper describes the process of developing a learning environment specifically for disaster managers with strategic responsibilities. Focusing on competence development, the underlying concept emphasizes peer-like exchanges and self-directed learning rather than passive, externally organized training methods. For that purpose a web-based learning platform is being developed in combination with competence development modules tailored to the needs of crisis managers. The envisioned learning platform utilizes blended learning and social learning concepts and technologies to facilitate knowledge building, adapted and customized to the needs of the crisis managers. End-user requirements will be individually assessed in order to generate up-to-date content while considering the wider EU-context.